• Dyslexia is a learning disability that makes reading, writing, and spelling extremely difficult. Approximately 10-20% of the population has dyslexia with varying degrees of severity, and 70% of individuals with learning disabilities have dyslexia.  
  • Contrary to popular myth, people with dyslexia do not see words or letters backwards, and dyslexia is not a vision problem. Instead, research shows that people with dyslexia struggle with reading and spelling because their brains process sounds differently.
  • Dyslexia occurs in people of all intellectual levels including bright and gifted individuals. Dyslexic people possess many right brain strengths such as creativity, the ability to think outside of the box, empathy towards others, sports, music, and visual memory. Although dyslexia is a life-long condition, most individuals can overcome difficulties with proper intervention and encouragement to pursue their areas of strength.

[Warning Signs]

  • Speech problems such as delayed speech, articulation difficulties (r-l, m-n, s-sh,ch), or stuttering
  • Slow to develop dominate hand
  • Trouble with rhyming in early grades
  • Handwriting problems such as strange letter formation, awkward pencil grip, illegible handwriting, or difficulty learning cursive
  • Difficulty copying off the board or a worksheet
  • Letter or number reversals persist past 1st grade
  • Slow, choppy, inaccurate reading
  • Trouble memorizing things like phone number or the days of the week
  • Difficulties with math such as trouble memorizing math facts, memorizing sequence of steps, or directionality
  • Terrible spelling



  • Dysgraphia is a learning disability that impacts writing. It can contribute to illegible handwriting, poor spelling, and weak written expression. Additionally, people with dysgraphia experience difficulty organizing letters and numbers on a page. 

[Warning Signs]

    • Avoiding writing and/or drawing
    • Quickly tiring during a writing task
    • Difficulty with letter formation
    • Subvocalizing while writing
    • Forgetting to write words in a sentence
    • Difficulty thinking of what to write
    • Illegible or immature handwriting
    • Poor written expression compared to verbal skills
    • Difficulty showing understanding on paper/pencil tasks
    • Trouble with grammar and spelling


  • Dyscalculia is a learning disability in the area of math.

[Warning Signs]

    • Trouble learning to count
    • Difficulty naming numbers and recognizing printed numbers
    • Trouble understanding that a printed number (2) represents a concrete amount (2 dogs)
    • Difficulty memorizing math facts
    • Weak math problem solving skills
    • Wake long term memory for mathematical knowledge
    • Trouble understanding mathematical concepts
    • Poor mental math abilities
    • Difficulty thinking strategically


  • Reading Comprehension Disability is a learning disability characterized by difficulties with reading comprehension.  

[Warning Signs]

  • Re-reading a text numerous times
  • Remembering only small details instead of main ideas
  • Repeatedly asking the same question


 Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

  •  Although not a specific learning disability, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can significantly impact learning. Many individuals with learning disabilities also have ADHD.

[Warning Signs]

  • Difficulty with still, silent activities
  • Slow to process information
  • Often disrupts games or conversation
  • Difficulty controlling outbursts

Central Auditory Processing Disorder

  • Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) affects how the brain processes what the ear hears. This includes the ability to store information heard in short and long-term memory, distinguish between different sounds in words, filter out background noise, or recall words in order. 

[Warning Signs]

    • Difficulty understanding spoken language
    • Trouble distinguishing between important sounds and background noise
    • Overly sensitive to noise
    • ifficulty following directions
    • Trouble understanding fast paced speech
    • Difficulty finding the correct word when speaking
    • Poor memory for lists or sequences
    • Often asks for words or sentences to be repeated
    • Difficulty hearing in a noisy atmosphere